Understanding Brain Injury

There are two types of brain injury:

  1. Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI): TBI is an injury to the brain and its coverings caused by trauma. Causes of TBI include: falls, assault, motor vehicle accidents, blow to the heads, sports Injuries, other.
  2. Acquired Brain Injury (ABI): An ABI is any brain injury which occurs after birth. Causes of ABI include: stroke, tumor, aneurysm, viral encephalitis, multiple sclerosis, anoxic/hypoxic (oxygen deprivation like near drowning), substance abuse, electric shock, other.

Incidence in USA:  According to the Center for Disease Control (CDC): the incidence of brain injury in the USA is as follows:

  • TBI 1,700,000
  • ABI 917,000 (CDC)

Facts about Brain Injury:

  • The World Health Organization (WHO) ranked strokes as the 2nd leading cause of death in the world killing an average of 6.2 million persons annually (2011 study).
  • 5.3 million Americans live with a long-term disability as a result of TBI (CDC).
  • 624 persons sustain a TBI in The Bahamas annually.*
  • The incidence of recorded TBI in The Bahamas has increased by 46.9% in 2012 compared to TBI recorded in 1997*
  • Motor vehicle crashes and traffic-related incidences are a major cause of TBI deaths.
  • Males are more likely than females to sustain a TBI at any age.
  • The annual cost of TBI to American society exceeds $76.5 billion.
  • The average annual cost of hospitalization of ICU ventilated TBI Patients in The Bahamas is conservatively estimated to be about $7.56 million (not including neuro-rehabilitation)*
  • The average cost of Neuro-Rehabilitation in Florida is between $250,000 to $500,000 per brain injury survivor.
  • The estimated cost of stroke in the United States was $53.9 billion in 2010.In 2005, nearly 1.1 million stroke survivors reported difficulty performing basic activities of daily life.

*Dr. Magnus Ekedede